Qu’est-ce que le cinema?, 14th edition (Paris: Le Cerf, 2002). “Le Kon-Tiki ou grandeur et servitudes du reportage filmé”, Vol. A stroke of tail and we would go down with the camera to the bottom of 6,000 or 7,000 meters. Bazin within Film Studies: The Received View. Founded in 1999, Senses of Cinema is one of the first online film journals of its kind and has set the standard for professional, high quality film-related content on the Internet. It is apparent without appearing, just as in Didi-Huberman’s “paradox of the phasmid”: the stick insect whose body perfectly resembles twigs or leaves in a way of incorporating rather than imitating its environment. When semi-fictional or semi-documentary aspects are at issue, this sociological ontology of the animal expands into an æsthetical ontology of the cinema itself. Now what would the animal be if not an amalgam not only of the real and imaginary, the documentary and fiction, but also of actual and animated documentaries, or actual and animated fictions? Even though the film depicts a Disney story of a child’s regaining his animal friend, Bazin sees through a “cinema in the glory of nature and men who wrestle with it as Jacob with the Angel” (21). Why animals, then? 2389 (20 May 1952). He met future film and television producer Janine Kirsch while working at Labour and Culture, a militant organization associated with the French Communist party during World War II and eventually they married in 1949 and had a son named Florent. 63-5. This genuine documentary of the deep sea includes (1) an objective two-shot of a shark attacking a whale, for which man could feel sympathy as a mammal; (2) self-reflexive shots of the shooting device and the cameraman as the subject of filmic enunciation, which breaks into the closed diegetic space; and (3) subjective shots of the sea as a whole, the Real as the matrix of life including invisible others: […] mysterious and invisible nebulas of plankton reflect the echo of the radar. Bazin also championed directors like Howard Hawks, William Wyler and John Ford. Taking three rough steps from fiction through the semi-fictional or semi-documentary to the documentary, what follows traces Bazinian animal films in a way to rethink ontological as well as aesthetical concepts that penetrate the core of his cinematic vision. “Avec Naufragé volontaire et Forêt sacré le reportage filmé devient une aventure spirituelle”, Vol. (1) That bird’s linguistic ability was no consideration for the authorities of France, a psittacosis-phobic country in which the parrot became fraudulent and contraband. Man, say biologists, is a marine animal who carries the sea in the interior. II. Now the encounter with a phasmid-animal enables us to rewrite Bazin’s æsthetical ontology with more subtlety and profundity. “Les Aventures de Perri: Walter Disney romancier et poète de la nature”, Vol. (17). Hence Bazin’s famous prohibition of montage: “When the essence of a scene demands the simultaneous presence of two or more factors in the action, montage is ruled out.” (9) The genuine suspense in Where No Vultures Fly (Harry Watt, 1951) emerges with parents, child and lioness all in the same full shot, just as in Nanook’s hunting seal and Chaplin’s being in the lion’s cage. Couldn’t we see here Bazin’s ontology of the photographic image evolving into the ontology of the cinematic découpage? (And also, for that matter, of what it is to be a dog. : On a souvent besoin d’un plus gros que soi”, Vol. “L’Amazone nue: un peu ‘habillée’”, Vol. But, again, as “the representation of a real death” of the bull or the bullfighter is the inevitable “obscenity” of the cinematic image (40), we must accept the failed representation of a potential death of the director as the ontological core of the cinema. In any event, it is never with arguments that one wins over a person. It starts with the sharp criticism of Scott of the Antarctic (Charles Frend, 1948), a studio work “to imitate the inimitable, to reconstruct that which of its very nature can only occur once, namely risk, adventure, death” (24). 15-34. And yet this æsthetic credo does not rule out all types of cutting. Bazin was born in Angers, France in 1918. (18). Serge Daney, “L’écran du fantasme (Bazin et les bêtes)”, La Rampe: Cahier critique 1970-1982 (Paris: Cahier du Cinéma et Gallimard, 1982), pp. A summary of this essay was presented at the transatlantic conference, “Ouvrir Bazin/Opening Bazin”, held at the University of Paris 7 and Yale University in November and December 2008. The long-held view of Bazin's critical system[6] is that he argued for films that depicted "objective reality" (such as documentaries[7] and films of the Italian neorealism school or as he called it "the Italian school of the Liberation"[8]). So (2) indicates where Bazin’s ultimate question is posed: What is cinema? He edited Cahiers until his death, and a four-volume collection of his writings was published posthumously, covering the years 1958 to 1962 and titled Qu'est-ce que le cinéma? Truffaut dedicated The 400 Blows to Bazin, who died one day after shooting commenced on the film. Georges Didi-Huberman, “Le Paradoxe du phasme”, Phasmes: essais sur l’apparition (Paris: Minuit, 1998), pp. Bazin’s comparison between Groenland (Greenland (Marcel Ichac, 1949) and Kon-Tiki (Thor Heyerdahl, 1950) is crucial here: one is a perfect montage, the other shows “almost nothing” (25); one is “the exhaustive and ideal testimony, the automatic copy of the event”, the other “the partial testimony [that] out of necessity represents its object only very weakly” (26). In comparison with Vittorio De Sica’s Miracolo a Milano (Miracle in Milan, 1951), Bazin wrote twice on Buongiorno, elefante! Bazin, who was influenced by personalism,[10] believed that a film should represent a director's personal vision. A couple of semi-documentary films are suggestive of this repositioning of the director as a character. There is an emphasis on Bazin's Christianity and the belief that every shot is a representation of God manifesting creation. André Bazin, What is Cinema? And yet it is “in the insufficiency of its form” that the cinema preserves “the subjective authenticity, the moral quality of adventure” (29). The customs, however, turned out to be a MacGuffin, passing the bird with no interest, while the transatlantic anxiety suddenly turned into a happy ending: “Coco est français.”. Bazin, for instance, points out not just an objective shot of real danger – a beaver and a squirrel on the tree in the same shot – but also a subjective shot taken from the squirrel’s point of view – we see the beaver climbing up the tree while also noticing the squirrel’s tail in the foreground, which indicates its being there. “De la difficulté d’être Coco”, Vol. It appears on this threshold between the seen and the unseen, between positive and negative imprints, between subjectivity and nothingness. (32). Bazin argued for films that depicted what he saw as "objective reality" (such as documentaries and films of the Italian neorealism school) and directors who made themselves "invisible" (such as Howard Hawks).

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